Compiled by Sister Cindy
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) claims, depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain and important neurotransmitters—chemicals that brain cells use to communicate –appear to be out of balance. A Half-century of data says that this theory is wrong!!
“The evidence does not support any of the biochemical theories of mental illness,” concluded Elliot Valenstein, a professor of neuroscience at the University of Michigan.
Jim Glenmullen, an instructor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, noted that “in every instance where such an imbalance was thought to be found, it was later proved to be false.”
Dr. Kenneth Kendler, co-editor in chief of Psychological Medicine wrote, “We have hunted for big simple neurochemical explanations for psychiatric disorders and have not found them."
Serotonin tests:1969,1971,1974-- two of them at Yale showed no evidence of low serotonin levels in depressed patients. (Pg. 71 “Anatomy of an Epidemic, Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America,” by Robert Whitaker.)
“I spent the first several years of my career doing full-time research on brain serotonin metabolism, but I never saw any convincing evidence that any psychiatric disorder, including depression, results from a deficiency of brain serotonin,” said Stanford psychiatrist David Burns in 2003.
“There is no scientific evidence whatsoever that clinical depression is due to any kind of biological deficit state, Colin Ross, professor of psychiatry at Southwest Medical Center in Dallas, book Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry.
In 2000 the authors of Essential Psychopharmacology told medical students that there is no clear and convincing evidence that a chemical deficiency accounts for depression.
Irish psychiatrist David Healy said that this theory needed to be put into the "medical dustbin" where other such discredited theories can be found.
On 60 minutes, Psychiatrist Dr. Walter Brown from Brown university said, “The causes of depression remain a mystery. That chemical imbalance theory has guided the pharmaceutical companies. The theory is probably incorrect although it is still taught in medical schools and many psychiatrists still believe it. The researchers in the field believe that the theory is now incorrect.”
“The dopaminergic theory of schizophrenia retains little credibility for psychiatrists,” Dr. Pierre Deniker, 1990
Dr. John Kane, a psychiatrist at Long Island Jewish Medical Center said, “there is no good evidence for any perturbation of the dopamine function in schizophrenia.”
Instead, the evidence shows that these drugs altar the brain and cause it to function abnormally.
“Attempts to define a biological basis for ADHD have been consistently unsuccessful,” wrote pediatric neurologist Gerald Golden. 1991
National Institutes of Health: panel of experts determined, "after years of clinical research and experience with ADHD our knowledge about the cause or causes of ADHD remains largely speculative."
American Psychiatric Press’s Textbook of Neuropsychiatry admitted that studies had not been able to find evidence of a chemical imbalance in ADHD children.
Studies show that the prescribed drugs made the children depressed, lonely; and that they have low self-esteem. Dr. Esther Sleator, Univer. Of Ill., University of Texas psychologist, Deborah Jacobvite, University of Minn. Psychologist, Alan Sroufe.
“The major effect of stimulants appears to be an improvement in classroom manageability rather than academic performance,” Russell Barkley at the Medical College of Wisconsin.
In 2002 a group of Canadian doctors conducted a meta-analysis of the medical studies and reviewing 14 studies with 1379 youth found that there was little evidence that Ritalin improved academic performance. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
APA’s Textbook of Psychiatry: Stimulants do not produce lasting improvements in aggressivity, conduct disorder, criminality, education achievement, job functioning, marital relationships or long-term adjustments.
In a study done by NIMH investigators scientists found that after three years the “medication use was a significant marker, not of beneficial outcome, but of deterioration. That is participants using medication in the 24-36 month period actually showed increased symptomatology during that interval relative to those not taking the medication.”
After six years, medication use was “associated with worse hyperactivity-impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms with greater overall functional impairment.”
“We had thought that children medicated longer would have better outcomes. That didn’t happen to be the case,” said William Pelhan from the State University of New York at Buffalo, who was one of the principal investigators. “In the short term, medication will help the children behave better, in the long run it won’t. And that information should be made very clear to parents.”
Ritilan and the other ADHD medications cause a long list of physical, emotional, and psychiatric adverse side effects. The physical problems include drowsiness, appetite loss, lethargy, insomnia, headaches, abdominal pain, motor abnormalities, facial and vocal tics, jaw clenching, skin problems, liver disorders, weight loss, growth suppression, hypertension and sudden cardiac death. The emotional difficulties include depression, apathy, a general dullness, mood swings, crying jags, irritability, anxiety, and a sense of hostility toward the world. The psychiatric problems include obsessive compulsive symptoms, mania, paranoia, psychotic episodes, and hallucinations. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences